Case Western Red Survey

Case Western Red Survey

These are 197 objective prism plates taken of the northern sky. A 4 degree prism was placed on the front of the telescope resulting in images of stellar spectra. The collection was taken between June 1978 and January 1980. This particular collection is meant for scientists who want to study the spectra of stars. Each jpeg image is about 1.5MB. Full raw images (~75 MB) may be requested.

 

Canada-France-Hawaii Observatory

Canada-France-Hawaii Observatory

The Canada-France-Hawaii (CFH) observatory hosts a world-class, 3.6 meter optical/infrared telescope. The observatory became operational in 1979 and is located atop the 4200 meter summit of Mauna Kea, HI.  The images shown below are of NGC 3109; both images are from a section of the same wide-field prime focus exposed on a 10″ x 10″ glass plate. The first is the original negative image and the second is a positive colorized image.

NGC 3109 is 4.2 Million light years away and is classified as a Magellanic type irregular galaxy.  NGC 3109 is oriented edge-on from our point of view and the disk appears to be composed of stars of all ages, whereas the halo contains only very old metal-poor stars. NGC 3109 does not appear to possess a galactic nucleus.

CFH Plate #A-1773 – NGC 3109 – 28 January 1982

CFH-A1773 3.6meter 2400ppi.jpg

CFHT NGC3105 19820128.jpg

Nova Cygni 1920

Nova Cygni 1920

Nova Cygni 1920 – August 1920 – University of Michigan’s 37.5″ reflector. The following (uncalibrated) spectral images show five days in the life of this novae: August 23, 24 25, 29 and September 2, 1920. Spectral images record the violent changes in a nova from day-to-day and hour-to-hour.  Examination of the spectral lines help astrophysicists determine the complex processes that happen as a star becomes a nova. These spectral images are part of a collection of 20,000+ glass plates from the University of Michigan spanning the period from 1911 to 1973. Each of the 472 individual stars contain a number of plates ranging from 5 to 150 and span a time period from only a few days up to several decades.

07-Nova Cygni 1920.jpg

 

CWRU – Burrell-Schmidt Telescope

CWRU – Burrell-Schmidt Telescope

Warner & Swasey Observatory – Case Western Reserve University – Burrell-Schmidt Telescope.  Since 1941, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) has been successful in probing the universe using the 24/36 inch Burrell-Schmidt telescope (see photo below).  APDA has over 23,500 photographic images (1941-1994) taken on glass plates using this telescope.

The telescope spent its first 38-years in Ohio before moving in 1979 to the clearer skies near Tucson, AZ, at NOAO’s Kitt PeaK National Observatory. The Burrell-Schmidt telescope is shared between CWRU and the NOAO astronomical community. The following image is a 150 minute exposure taken with the Burrell-Schmidt. It shows M31 (NGC 224) and its tiny bright companions M32 (NGC 221), lower center, and NGC 205 (sometimes designated M110), to the upper right. M31 is approximately 2,538,000 light years from earth.

Andromeda Galaxy (M31) – Burrell-Schmidt Telescope – 26 October 1981 – Plate #6837
Case-6837 19811026 M31 Crop Rot.jpg

 

Burrell-Schmidt Telescope
Warner & Swasey Observatory at Kitt Peak Station 1
Burrell-Schmidt-02364a.jpg

 

1Copyright  “NOAO/AURA/NSF, all rights reserved.

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), 50 miles east of La Serena, Chile.  APDA contains several thousand plates that originated at CTIO. Two telescopes contribute to APDA’s CTIO collection: The University of Michigan’s 0.6-meter Curtis-Schmidt and  the Blanco 4-meter (twin of the 4-meter Mayhill at KPNO). The Curtis-Schmidt objective-prism collection is primarily from Dr. Nancy Hock’s HD Reclassification Project. The 4-meter Blanco images are mainly deep-sky direct images from a variety of observers and programs.

The following image is a section of a 10-degree objective-prism plate from Dr. Nancy Houk’s project. This image shows approximately 50 stellar spectra most of which have dark absorption lines. However, one spectrum, just above the center of the image, shows eight  bright lines. These lines indicate oxygen, hydrogen and helium elements and their configuration is characteristic of a planetary nebula.

10-degree prism Plate #21731 – 31 May 1978

CTIO-21731-19780531 Web.jpg

 

Henize H-alpha Southern Survey

Henize H-alpha Southern Survey

Michigan-Mount Wilson Southern H-alpha Survey; a.k.a., Lamont-Hussey H-alpha Survey.  From 1949-1951, Karl Henize conducted a full southern survey at the Lamont-Hussey Observatory in Bloemfontein, South Africa.  The purpose of the survey was to photograph the entire southern sky south of -25 degrees. A 10″ refractor with a red-corrected Cooke triplet lens and a 52″ focal length yielded a 16 x 16 degree field of view on 15″ x 15″ glass plates coated with 103aE emulsion sensitive from 4800-6800 Angstroms.

A 15-degree objective prism gave a dispersion of 450 Angstroms/mm at H-alpha with a plate scale of 159-arcsecs/mm. This accounts for the elongated “raindrop” appearance for each of the stellar objects. The following image is a section of plate LHa-319 exposed on 15 Jan 1951. Notice the three thin bright horizontal lines below the spectrum marked as #35; this is the unique spectral signature identifying a planetary nebula.

Plate #LHa-319 – 15 Jan 1951
LHa-319 19510115 Flip.jpg

RR Lyrae & Cepheid Variables

RR Lyrae & Cepheid Variables

Radcliffe Observatory – 74″ reflector,  Pretoria, South Africa. The following three images related to the spectrum of a Cepheid class star, S Cru. The first is Plate # Cc 647 is from a collection of spectra of RR Lyrae and Cepheid variable star spectra taken with the 74″ reflector at Radcliffe Observatory in Pretoria, S.A., by Prof. D. W. N. Stibbs from 1951-1952. 

Next, the spectrum is transformed into a wavelength vs. flux intensity plot (3720-5120 Angstroms). Such a plot is used to identify a star’s chemical composition, temperature, density, mass, distance, luminosity, and relative motion using Doppler shift measurements. Finally, a colorized version of the spectrum follows and is based upon the calibration plot.

Plate #Cc 647 taken by D. W. N. Stibbs at Pretoria, S.A., March 29, 1952

The central bright line with dark bands is the star’s spectrum

The bright vertical lines on either side of the star spectrum is produced by a reference lamp

Cc647 19520329  Spectrum S Cru.jpg

 

Wavelength vs. Intensity Plot

s cru.bmp

 

Colorized image of the S Cru spectrum

Cc647 Color Spectrum.jpg

 

SKYLAB Experiment S-019

SKYLAB Experiment S-019

Ultraviolet (UV) spectra – SKYLAB missions SL2, SL3 and SL4.  The 1973-1974 Skylab manned missions performed numerous scientific experiments and took thousand of photographs.  Experiment S-019 provided a unique set of data allowing a comprehensive study of UV radiations of hot stars (spectral types O, B and A). The effects of UV scattering by interstellar dust particles, as seen in the analysis of the S-019 spectra, helped in understanding the distribution and character of the interstellar dust.

The following image shows spectral images of several stars in S-019 field #302. The hole pattern mottling in the background emulsion fog is associated with the hole pattern of the stainless steel backing plate. This exposure complication was removed by applying mathematical algorithms during computer image processing before the spectra could be analyzed.

Plate SL 4-073 – RA=08h16m, Dec=46d36m – 20 December 1973

SL 4-073.jpg

 

Coronal Loop 20691

Coronal Loop 20691

Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO), HI, July, 1991. A coronal loop consists of luminous gas or plasma extending from the sun’s surface in regions of magnetic fields and extend thousands of miles into space. In the past, coronal loops were visible only during a total eclipse. Today, optical filters are available to observe solar prominences at a narrow wavelength band of light in particular at 656.3 nanometers. MLSO uses an occulting disk to simulate a solar eclipse; this allows recording features such as coronal loops, flares & prominences. The following image was taken on frame #119 at 19:17:28 UTC on the 206th day of 1991.

HAO MLSO-15-91 OFF 8-4-1991_0098.jpeg